Cough:

Acute bronchitis
Upper respiratory infection 
Acute pharyngitis 
Gastric reflux disease 
Asthma 
Sinusitis 
Pneumonia 
Influenza, other viral illness 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Congested heart failure 
Allergic rhinitis 
Medication side effects 
Lung malignancy 
Pertussis 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Fatigue or tiredness:

Viral illness  
Depression 
Anemia 
Anxiety or stress 
Sinusitis 
Congest heart failure 
Medication side effects 
Influenza 
Diabetes 
Mononucleosis 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Ischemic heart disease 
Gastrointestinal malignancy 
Lymphoma, leukemia 
Hypothyroidism 
Obstructive sleep apnea 
Insomnia 
Obesity 
Hypertension 
Adrenal insufficiency 
Renal failure 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Low back pain:

Mechanical low back pain  
Sciatica 
Muscle strain 
Degenerative disc disease 
Osteoporosis 
Rheumatoid arthritis 
Urinary tract infection 
Kidney stone 
Prostate cancer 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Fever:

Upper respiratory illness  
Viral disease 
Acute bronchitis 
Acute otitis media 
Influenza 
Pneumonia 
Sinusitis 
Urinary tract infection 
Strep throat 
Gastrointestinal infection 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Mononucleosis 
Meningitis 
Appendicitis 
Cancer 
Medication 
Skin infection 
Serious infectious diseases 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Shortness of breath:

Asthma  
Acute bronchitis 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease  Congestive heart failure 
Anxiety 
Upper respiratory infection 
Pneumonia 
Acute laryngitis/tracheitis 
Ischemic heart disease 
Lung malignancy 
PE, or pulmonary embolism 
Pneumothorax 
Foreign body aspiration 
Hyperventilation 
Anemia 
Hyperthyroidism 
Obesity or deconditioning 
Neuromuscular disease 
​Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Abdominal pain:

Irritable bowel syndrome  
Gastrointestinal infection 
Constipation 
Diverticular disease  
Urinary tract infection 
Other viral infection 
Gastrointestinal malignancy 
Biliary colic  
Appendicitis 
Duodenal ulcer 
Other malignancies 
Aortic aneurysm 
​Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Headache:

Sinusitis  

Tension headache  

Migraine  

Cervical disease  

Upper respiratory illness, other viral disease

Influenza  

Concussion  

Gastrointestinal malignancy  

CNS ie central nerve system malignancy  

CVA ie cerebrovascular accident, stroke

Meningitis  

Eye disorders  

Rebound headache from medication  

Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Vertigo/dizziness:

Anxiety  
Postural hypotension 
Hypertension 
Fatigue 
Medication side effect 
Cervical disease 
Iron deficiency anemia 
CVA, TIA, transient ischemic attack, ie stroke 
Upper respiratory illness 
Concussion 
Atrial fibrillation 
Sinusitis 
Tension headache 
Acoustic neuroma 
Viral labyrinthitis
Benign positional vertigo 
Eustachian tube disfunction 
Menier's disease 
Vertebrobasilar insufficiency 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Chest pain:

Ischemic heart disease  
Anxiety 
Congested heart failure 
Atrial fibrillation 
Hypertension 
GERD or gastric esophageal reflux disease 
Pneumonia 
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 
Acute bronchitis 
Pulmonary embolism 
Esophageal spasm 
Aortic aneurysm 
Chest wall strain, muscle or skeletal pain 
Shingles 
Other, or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Swelling or edema:

Congested heart disease  
Venous insufficiency 
Thrombophlebitis 
Hypertension 
Medication side effect   ​  
Peripheral vascular disease 
Ischemic heart disease 
Infection 
Atrial fibrillation 
Arthritis 
Kidney renal disease 
Gastrointestinal cancer 
Cirrhosis 
Deep venous thrombosis 
Obesity 
Premenstrual syndrome 
Cellulitis 
Other or unknown, not yet diagnosed


Reference
David Ponka and Michael Kirlew. Top 10 Differential Diagnosis in Primary Care. Published by: Ajay Rakesh on Apr 16, 2011.
Pre-operative Clearance
Diagnostics
Disease and symptoms management
Hypertension
Hyperlipidemia
Diabetes
Back pain
Anxiety
Obesity
Allergic rhinitis
Reflux esophagitis
Respiratory problems
Hypothyroidism
Visual refractive errors
Osteoarthritis
Fibromyalgia/myositis, neuritis
Malaise and fatigue
Pain in joint
Acute laryngopharyngitis
Acute maxillary sinusitis
Major depressive disorder
Acute bronchitis
​Asthma

Urinary tract infection

Diarrhea

Constipation

Neck pain, shoulder pain, arm pain

Coronary atherosclerosis & other heart disease
Pneumonia
Congestive heart failure
History of myocardial infarction
Chronic cerebrovascular disease
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
Spondylosis, intervertebral disc disorders
Fluid and electrolyte disorders
Biliary tract disease
Osteoarthritis
Rehabilitation care
Skin and subcutaneous tissue infections
Alcohol-related mental disorders
Substance-related mental disorders
Diverticulosis and diverticulitis
Epilepsy, convulsions
Pancreatic disorders
Syncope
Phlebitis, thrombophlebitis and thromboembolism
Calculus of urinary tract
Occlusion or stenosis of precerebral arteries
Other lower respiratory disease
Esophageal disorders
Abdominal pain
Gastritis and duodenitis
Peripheral and visceral atherosclerosis
Senility and organic mental disorders
Noninfectious gastroenteritis
Intestinal infection
Hyperplasia of prostate
Viral infection
Deficiency and other anemia
Renal failure
Sprains and strains
Other upper respiratory infections
Aortic, peripheral, & visceral artery aneurysms

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